07 April 2015


Directives, standards and related national measures are today the greatest part of the economic demand. 

A large part of this potential concerns safety, environment protection, well-being, justice, transport, energy, communications… It remains largely underexploited.

The essential requirements are not only a must, they also are a social support for leadership and an opportunity for innovation.

The full exploitation of this demand depends on the way stakeholders’ design and develop the products they will place on the market to conquer the new demand. The speed and quality of the regulations have a strong influence. The status and role of the working groups of stakeholders building the maps for implementation in this knowledge economy is even more decisive.

1. The golden age

The support of the demand by the leaders and by the citizens is the reason why Pericles’ economy succeeded so brilliantly. The economy launched by Pericles in Athena did not only favor knowledge. It concerned law, money, trade, agriculture, craft, building industry...

Pericles favored money expansion by the exploitation of the silver mines of Mount Laurion. He invested the wealth brought by free trade, craft and arts to launch a policy of public works. He developed a building industry that did spread all around the Mediterranean see. Pericles protected the access to the Piraeus harbor by long fortified walls. He built several new monuments dedicated to the administration, to exchanges of all kinds and to the glory of the city. He totally renewed Acropolis with the monumental entrance of the Propylaea and the magnificent Parthenon.

2. The industrial era

Long before the new deal, major works of the XIXth century in United States were public works. Within the liberal regime of the USA, Senator Thomas Hart Benton and the Congress strongly support the transcontinental railway and telegraph.

Topographical surveys are covered by the public budget with the help of the Defense Department. Lands are provided by public authorities. In 1862, the law on the Pacific Railroad is adopted by the Congress.

Two private companies are chosen to build the railways: Central Pacific and Union Pacific. The interested parties play a major role bringing the necessary finance (Wall street) and using the know-how already developed by Europe to build the lines, the bridges (Eiffel), tunnels and locomotives (Stourbridge Lion).

3. The information society

To lead the Internet revolution, Al Gore chaired in 1989 a Senate hearing. The potential of a national information superhighway were explored. The researchers demonstrated how could be bridged together the individuals to cooperate in ways that never had existed before.

Four years later, President Clinton and Vice President Al Gore held a meeting at Silicon Graphics Inc presenting the trans-continental computer network. Vice President Gore announces this will be "the most important and lucrative marketplace of the 21st century." Billions of dollars were invested in network infrastructure. Stakeholders met the President’s request. America is wired for the future. US companies are today leading the information society.

4. The knowledge economy

The European Union has launched a strategy to build a knowledge economy. The Lisbon strategy was supposed to bring a growth of at least 3% each year.

The agreed objectives have remained achieved. The failure mainly results of poor governance (see article on Project).

As the First Forum of the Single Market (Krakow – October 2011 – See article on the Axis of Krakow), the interested parties underlined the fact that the European law was not considered seriously. A European strategy cannot succeed if it is not implemented.

A clear vision needs to be brought to the European citizens and stakeholders on what is demanded. This is the mission of the working groups (Referent’s Committees) which are appointed to analysis the impact; follow the transposition and implement each directive.